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动态和静态BGP线路的区别

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BGP协议的最主要功能在于控制路由的传播和选择最佳路由的路径。中国电信、中国联通、中国移动,以及一些大型第三方IDC服务提供商都具有中国互联网信息中心颁发的AS号。全国各大网络运营商的部分高质量自有网络,多数都是使用BGP协议,相互广播IP来实现各个自治域之间的多线互联。 时下,运营商和第三方IDC服务提供商广泛采用BGP协议来实现AS(自治域)之间的互联,这已经成为解决当前国内南北互联互通问题的首要方法。 然而近年来,在用户在选择服务器托管或者租用服务器时,经常会见到所谓BGP双线接入这样的宣传口号。但是用户在实际的使用过程中又感受不到属于真正BGP网络的那种低延迟以及跨网络访问的体验,那么,这种所谓BGP双线是真正意义上的BGP线路么? 其实,一般中小型数据中心所谓BGP双线是一种双IP双线路接入方式,即在服务器上设置一个联通或者电信IP,通过路由设备判断数据包经过电信网络,还是联通网络来发送。此方案可以在一定程度上提高联通用户与电信用户的跨网访问速度,解决单IP双线接入方式需要在服务器上设置路由的问题,但是由于采用联通或电信的IP地址,因而用户发送请求数据包时,服务器不会自动判别最好的路由。所以这种解决方案只是一种过渡形式的折中解决方案,被称为静态BGP线路。也就是说,当静态BGP中的网络结构发生变化,运营商是无法在第一时间自动调整网络设置以保障用户的体验度。而动态BGP可根据设定的寻路协议第一时间自动优化网络结构,以保持客户使用的网络持续稳定、高效。所以,动态BGP网络被称为真正意义上的BGP。 BGP线路和普通线路的本质区别 一个自治系统的经典定义是在一个管理机构控制之下的一组路由器,它使用IGP和普通度量值向其他自治系统转发报文。在BGP中使用自治系统这个术语是为了强调这样一个事实:一个自治系统的管理对于其他自治系统而言是提供一个统一的内部选路计划,它为那些通过它可以到达的网络提供了一个一致的描述。BGP协议是不同自治系统路由器之间进行通信的外部网关协议,作为EGP替代品。BGP系统之间交换网络的可达到信息。这些信息包括数据到达这些网络所必须经过的自治系统AS中的所有路径,通过这些信息构造自治系统链接图,然后根据全局BGP路由表,避免环路,选择最优路径。 真正的BGP线路机房,均通过互联网AS(自治系统)之间的互联,这是因为BGP协议是一种在自治系统之间动态交换路由信息的协议,也就是所谓的动态BGP。 如何去甄别真假BGP线路的服务器 首先,了解IDC企业是否取得了AS号等硬性条件,这是BGP线路的最基本要求。其次,可以利用各种站长工具对于服务器的IP段分地区进行测试,测试结果有很高的可参考性。再次,就是在日常的使用中,BGP线路在跨网访问的时候速度的提升是很明显的,用户很容易感知到。使用BGP协议互联后,网络运营商的所有骨干路由设备将会判断到IDC机房IP段的互联最佳路由,以保证不同网络运营商用户的高速访问。 用户在选择BGP机房时,一定应注意服务提供商是否符合运营BGP机房的“硬条件”——即拥有CNNIC或APNIC颁布的AS号,以及向其申请并通过BGP协议广播的IP段。如果不具备上述条件,那么提供商的网络服务往往无法到达低延迟、高度冗余的要求。即便如此用户也应该对符合上述条件的服务提供商的线路进行详细的测试,以便能够摸清其线路质量的真实情况。 简言之,国内号称BGP双线或者多线的IDC服务提供商大部分都是不符合上述条件的。因此有BGP线路需求的用户需要对当前的市场现状有比较清晰的认识,进一步说明就是真正的BGP双线/多线服务提供商在国内是比较有限的。 站在行业的层面讲,期待更多的IDC服务提供商能够为广大用户提供真正的BGP线路服务,从而搭建更加快捷、稳定的商用网络环境,为互联网基础服务行业的发展做出贡献。
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